The Spanish Retinta breed participated in the formation of the Creole, or American livestock. In the land of the Vaquero we refer to the decedents of the original Spanish Retinta cows born in the new world el “ganado (cattle) criollo”.The first shipments of cattle to the New World began with the second voyage of Christopher Columbus from Cadiz on 25 September 1493. Due to a lack of space in the small sailing vessels the Spanish captains took only small calves who were accompanied on their journey by pigs and sheep destined for the island of Santo Domingo, called Hispaniola by Columbus. On the third trip, on 30 May 1498, from Sanlucar de Barrameda a greater number of animals was sent, especially horses for the conquest of the new world, and pairs of cattle and donkeys to promote breeding. In any case, the introduction of cattle in the new world was very slow and quite difficult due to various factors, mainly because of the difficulty involved in the health and nutrition of the very young calves and the near impossibility of handling and feeding animals adults, little meek, those boats so rudimentary. For these circumstances the authorities and the Governor of Hispaniola prevented the departure of this type of livestock on the island, moreover, urgían permanently to the Crown on new shipments of small cattle and horses to conquer, however, shipments Subsequent preferred pigs and sheep for its easy shipment and transportation. In 1,511 Diego Colon, the son of Admiral and Governor of Hispaniola was welcomed these measures against depopulation vaccine at the same time you were asked to leave horses to leave Tierra Firme, which granted because it is essential for the animals conquest. By this authorization, and there were some 1,514 in yeguarizos in Santa María la Antigua (Colombia, along with Panama), copies of which went to the achievements of Pizarro and other conquerors of the Inca empire. Subsequent to the first journeys of Christopher Columbus, shipments of cattle to America were mainly from New York, but also took place sporadically from Cadiz or other ports of Andalusia, especially of livestock breeds and extremeñas Andalusia, which served as the basis for unique the formation of the current landraces. However, it is not known for sure if all the cattle came from the region near Seville or if some shipments were made in the Canary Islands, and scale usual route for travel to America. As mentioned, the first shipments were made basically for the island of Santo Domingo, ie Hispaniola. This island was the starting point for the distribution of cattle to Cuba and the Continent or Tierra Firme. This latest expansion into Tierra Firme was quite late, because the religious Hispaniola, following the example of Diego Columbus, also banned the exit of cattle as the most effective measure against the possible depopulation of the island. Moreover, in order to remove cattle from there, it required the respective obtain actual authorization, as did Bastidas and Heredia thirty years after the second voyage of Columbus, and just beginning to start the expansion vaccine outside of Hispaniola. As origin of cattle brought to America, mentions the trunk turdetano (Red convex) which is the largest ethnic entity livestock Spanish and that undoubtedly was the one that most influenced the formation of landraces. In this trunk are races Retinta, Berrenda in Colorado (Andalusia) and Rubia Galician as major, and for being close to the ports of departure for America was the foundation of the Latin American livestock. Not forgetting to race from the Canary Islands as the Palmeña and Canaria, descendants of the breed Blonde Galician, also lent their genetics in cattle Creole. He also mentioned the Cacereńa and black Andalusian It is said that livestock Creole race Caracú of Brazil has similar origins to the modern breeds Minhota, Barrosa Arouquesa Mirandesa and Portugal. They are all races in the north and Minhota is identical to the Galician. The similarities between the races in Brazil and Latin America can be explained by the geographical proximity of its origins. The Spaniards landed in the Caribbean with the first cattle and from there began their dispersion, so successful that before 40 years, in 1524, as reported on the existence of cattle in all countries of South America. They entered by Santa Marta, Colombia in the first place. A subcorriente came to Venezuela. To the south, Lima was the main focus of dispersion. From there crossed Bolivia, Paraguay and Chile to reach Argentina and Uruguay. Another stream came from Brazil, and the Rio de la Plata became a major focus of dispersion. Since 1524, America began to populate its territory of cattle and introduce them into their ecological systems. Much has been written about the origins of livestock in Colombia [See: Origin of Animal Husbandry in Colombia]. Today it is not known with certainty whether comes from Spain or the Penisular Insular Spain (Canary Islands). There are reports that about half of the sixteenth century and under the rule of its founder, arrived in Cartagena five hundred cattle from Hispaniola (now Santo Domingo). Cattle Creole was the origin of civilization expansion in Latin America, under the influence of the Jesuits. The Jesuits in the new world were of great concern for livestock as a source of collective wealth to keep the first settlers and Indians near Mission. It is argued that the Jesuits in eastern Colombia dispensaban the greatest care to race Martinero San Creole, which is named after the Jesuit Mission of the area. Venezuela: Another avenue of penetration of beef production in South America, came through Venezuela, conducted by Marcelo Villalobos that 1,527 received from the Spanish Royal Audience privilege of cattle populate the island of Margarita. Subsequently, at 1,530, and Spira Federmán carried Choir (Venezuela) cows and sheep, but not succeeded because of the lack of natural grazing in the Venezuelan coast. For this to dwindle and livestock vaccine, Fernandez de Serpa to be appointed governor of Venezuela and pass through the island of Margarita, it took 800 cows and led to Tierra Firme to promote the breeding of its governance. Panama: While the coast of Darien was explored by Lepe and Bastidas and based on 1,510, Santa Maria La Antigua by Núñez de Balboa (first city in the Americas) is not known exactly arrival of the first cattle. Historians comment that had to be on 1,531, and therefore, subsequent to the issuance of Bastidas to 1,525 in Santa Marta, as discussed above, was the first consignment of cattle that arrived in Tierra Firme. Despite being a nation Panama in Central America, also had its significance in the expansion of cattle in South America since the cattle from Hispaniola, taking the path of Panama and following the path of Pizarro, Almagro and others, was recorded in Chile , Peru, Ecuador and southern Colombia, and Guayaquil the bridgehead Continental from Panama to provide the elements needed conquest and colonization of the Inca Empire. Peru: The arrival of cattle was carried out by Peru to the Pacific, from Hispaniola, taking the path of Panama, that is, following the path of Pizarro, Almagro and other conquistadors. Pizarro in his second expedition to conquer Peru departed from Panama in 1526 along with Almagro. The latter, after many hardships reached Atacama (Chile), but many were suffering they did return. As indicated Almagro was the first to set foot on Chilean soil, but it was Pedro de Valdivia true conqueror. Pizarro arrived in Cajamarca on November 15, 1532 where he was taken prisoner and killed Atahualpa (August 1533) despite the rescue delivered. According to Dr. Moreno, chronicler of this city, livestock was implemented a year after the death of Atahualpa, or by 1,534, mainly horses and cows in the rich lands of the valley surrounding the city of the Incas. Subsequently, it appears that the alderman Fernando Gutierrez aclimató cattle in Peru and Lima as Bernabé Cobo was sought land in the year 1539 in the vicinity of the City of Kings for raising cows. Brazil: Reports indicate that the first introduction of livestock dates from 1534 in the population of Brazil, São Vicente on the order of the donee of that colony (captaincy hereditary) Martin Afonso de Sousa and sent by his wife Ms. Ana Pimentel. It is believed they were three main ways of introduction: São Vicente (São Paulo), Pernambuco and Bahia (1550). Other scholars say that the cattle São Vicente (Brazil) resulting from the Cape Verde Islands, Portuguese possessions in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal, Africa. Many generations later, the Portuguese (Brazilian) made repeated incursions into neighbouring countries (without final borders by the lack of precision of the Treaty of Tordesillas) and manage to bring Sâo Paulo large amounts of cattle and hides. This closes the entire cycle of the Creole cattle in South America, a century before leaving Brazil, mingling with blood Peruvian crossed Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay and completing their march secular civilization was found with her siblings home to return to Brazil's central highlands. Argentina: Introduced cattle in Paraguay, its spread within the limits of the current Argentine territory was the work of a gradual process of the years. The Viceroyalty of La Plata receives cattle for the first time in 1,549, when Juan Nunez de Prado introduces Potosi from cows and sheep directly to Tucumán. In 1,551 Francisco de Aguirre introduces his entire estate across the Andes. Probably this was coming from livestock which settled in the beautiful valley where the city of Santiago founded by Pedro de Valdivia at 1,541. At the same time this same rancher in Argentina introduced a herd of cows from Peru. Another entrance was from Paraguay with wins from the famous seven cows and a bull kept by the brothers Gois whose progeny was that really began the population of cattle in the Argentine pampas, whose multiplication reached unprecedented proportions very soon because of the fertile grasslands. In the first and failed founding of Buenos Aires by Pedro de Mendoza in 1,536, Domingo Martinez de Irala was the leading horses that were released Irala to leave the city, leading to the Maroons as useful in subsequent processes. In issuing Irala, from Buenos Aires to Paraguay (Asuncion), took some horses that were the initial core of livestock horses in Paraguay. One of the reasons for success in the second and final founding of Buenos Aires carried out in 1580 by Juan de Garay was the great economic base that was found by the existence of cows (about 20 years who had arrived in Cordoba - from Santa Fe -- Salta and Santiago del Estero) and horses Maroons (issuance of Irala). Apart from these cows was found in Argentina, Garay took lots of other cows and the first nucleus of sheep. These cattle possibly lead garañones to begin in Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, as he had done in Asuncion, breeding mules. Uruguay: The first cattle were introduced in Uruguay believes, with some reservations, was conducted by Hernandarias Saavedra that landed in the Cow Cove, one hundred herds of cattle and two horses. By being left Buenos Aires, Santa Fe was founded by Hernandarias, on the banks of the Parana river, road to Rio de la Plata, the basis of concentration and diffusion of land won in Uruguay and Argentina, whose mild climate and the nature of Guarani Indians in the breeding and care of animals, led the successful livestock Chile: Pedro de Valdivia born Castuera (Bangkok) undertook the conquest of Chile in 1540 with only 150 men on horseback and on foot, along with 20 cows from Peru and they turn arrivals to Guayaquil from Panama. Valdivia was a man beloved among araucanos, that triumphant journey came to a fertile valley, between the Andes and the sea, starting on February 12, 1,541 city of Santiago de Nueva Extremadura in honor of the patron saint of Spain and its land Extremadura . It promoted heavily not only agriculture but also horse breeding cows and pigs in areas distributed equitably among knights and soldiers. Paraguay: The cattle came to Paraguay (Asuncion) in the fourth expedition livestock in this country, called the "seven cows Gois" with a bull from St. Vincent, on the coast of Brazil, drawn unlicensed real where bovine already been raised since the decade of 1530 from a pool of cows from Madeira brought by the wife of Martim Afonso de Sousa from the Alentejo and Extremadura. This expedition, which was attended by Portuguese and Spanish, was organized by the brothers Gois, nephews of Gois But, the donee Captaincy of Paraiba do Sul and wealthy plantation owner and factories (refineries) of sugar. Coni date this importation into 1,552, 1,555 in Giberti, but the requirement that appointment, and recalled that introduction, exists in the Archive of the Indies in Seville dated 1,559. These seven cows and a bull arrived on the river Parana after walking many miles by land and cross as many rivers in rafts. They were headed by a "cowboy" called Gaete, who came with them to Asuncion, as we have noted, with great difficulty and only work for the interest of a cow, he was said by salary, which was a proverb in the land it says "are more expensive than cows Gaete. DISTRIBUTION OF CATTLE IN AMERICA CRIOLLOS. BRAZIL Caracú. The current Caracú, adapted to the climate of Brazil, owns own characters and can be regarded as a national race, closer to the trunk Aquitánico that the Iberian. National Mocho. There are several theories about the origin of the cattle, but all agree that livestock Mocho National originated in cattle brought by the conquerors. As in the Iberian Peninsula there are no breeds of cattle without horns, some explain this feature as a result of a genetic mutation. Curraleiro or Pie-drive. The slow growth and the small size of livestock Curraleiro seem to be in harmony with the ecological conditions difficult in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. This fact qualifies as potentially important genetic resource for such adverse conditions of production. Pantaneiro. Cattle Pantaneiro has its natural habitat in the region known as the Pantanal ecological the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. The Pantanal is characterized by its generally flat topography, soil or anegadizados flooded during much of the year. Lageano Creole. These cattle in southern Brazil (Lages - Santa Catarina) in general are the most resemble the type introduced by the conquerors, not discussed, therefore its Iberian origin. ARGENTINA Animals Creole is possible to find in the Chaco Salteño, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán. The Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in the Experimental Station of Leales, Tucuman, in the sixties began conservation work and evaluation aimed at producing meat in that environment. Salt Peace (1977) showed that pure Creole produces greater weight of calves weaned per hectare in the Chaco the zebu, the British breeds or crosses with zebu. As noted Rabasa et al. Creole (1976) is characterized by having all colors layer of Bos taurus. In Creole Chaco (who works with the Experiment Station Leales-Tucumán) prevail doradillas layers with different shades ranging from the bay to colorado. The coat has enabled the study of heritability of color in the race (Rabasa et al, 1976). It has allowed research on the relationship between fur and fertility (Sal Paz et al, 1976). URUGUAY The Army National owns the only herd of Creole Uruguay, at Fort San Miguel, Chuy, near the border with Brazil. It consists of 400 cows and 16 bulls and is very similar to Argentine Criollo. It is maintained without assessment at that ecosystem. REPUBLICS ANDINAS Ecuador and Peru have an enormous population census of Creoles who are mainly in areas where the environment features very difficult, as the Altiplano or geographically isolated regions in the valleys. It is very urgent to avoid reducing the Creole population of cattle on the plateau, at altitudes of up to 4000 meters. They receive the names of Chuscos, Serranos and Criollo of the Sierras. The animals Creoles in high places, have a high percentage of layers refuse or partly black. BOLIVIA Not familiar with the current census of cattle Creoles in Bolivia. Herds most important are: Creole Yacumeño stay in the Spirit owned by the company Elsner Brothers, in the plains of Beni, the draft Creole Bolivian Santa Cruz, in collaboration with the British Mission in Tropical Agriculture and livestock projects Creole in Chapare and Chuquisaca. The Creole Yacumeño is clear from brown to dark hair is short and silky, many have black hair around the eyes, in the head and limbs. They are medium height, good ability milk, high fertility and maternal good ability. They are phenotypically identical to the native Argentines. The proposed Creole Yacumeño were evaluated with various systems of crossbreeding with zebu (Bauer and Plasse 1973, 1981 and 1983). The original objective of the Livestock Project in Santa Cruz Creole was the production of Creole bulls for use in crosses with European dairy breeds (Wilkins et al, 1984). VENEZUELA The Experimental Station Carrasquero attached to the National Fund for Agricultural Research in Venezuela has led for almost 25 years, a project on improvement, selection and maintenance of livestock Limonero Creole. This station is in the northwest state of Zulia, near the river Lemon that gives its name. The Creole Limonero hair is red and similar to Central and Costeño Horns with Colombia. The history of the Creole Limonero and data from experiment stations and farms are well documented in Venezuela Abreu et al. (1977) and Rios et al. (1959). The average yield per lactation livestock Creole Limonero is 2,201 kg (Abreu, 1988). Cattle Creole Llanero, selected for meat production, it is very similar to Casanare in Colombia. FEATURES IN COMMON BOVINAS CRIOLLAS BREEDS IN LATIN AMERICA -- Mansedumbre natural, except race Casanare in Colombia. -- Predominance of a single layer of hair color between yellow and red cherry, except race BON in Colombia, the native of Argentina, Uruguay and Crioula Lageana enBrasil. -- Head with horns, except race Romosinuano in Colombia, the National Mocho and Caracú, mocha variety in Brazil. -- Excellent in fertility, maternal ability and longevity. -- Navel and pigmented skin well short. -- Release top of the queue. -- Backing appearance ensillada except race Casanare in Colombia. -- Births normal and heavy calves at birth. -- Bulls sexually active. -- High heterosis at crossings with Cebu. The Spanish native breeds and their participation in the Ibero-American cattle Creole. Manuel Ortiz Beteta. Spanish Federation of Associations of Livestock Select. Arriving Cattle Herd Spanish to South America. Manuel Ortiz Beteta. The Iberian Bovine Cattle: 500 Years Later. A.T. Primo. Files Zootecnia. Brazil.